AUTOMATIC JAGGERY MAKING MACHINE
In this era of automation, world evolves around machines. Agricultural field too is under this lime light of automation. Jaggery is one of the principal agricultural products. In recent days, Jaggery making is done manually which is more time consuming and tiresome work. Due to less heat dissipation, jaggery making becomes difficult in present days. This automatic mechanism increases the production rate and decreases man power requirement. This process makes jaggery more hygienic. The automatic tilting of the pan is done with the help of pneumatic control and the semi solid fluid is then transferred to the mould for cooling. Once the standby time is over another pneumatic control opens the mould for the finished jaggery to be taken out. The objective is to benefit the rural economy and thereby increase the production rate. Adaptation of such new ideas in agriculture would enhance the present scenario and make India compete globally.
Sugar industry in India is a well-developed industry .It provides rural employment opportunities and plays an important role in Indian economy. Jaggery is also manufactured from sugarcane juice and is very widely used not only in individual households but also in many eateries, restaurants, clubs and hotels and it has certain industrial applications as well. Manufacture of sugar involves many technical aspects
and the capital investment is also on the higher side. Compared to this, production of jaggery is very simple and the capital cost is also very limited. Due to its wide applications, the market for jaggery is continuously growing.
The demand for jaggery is steadily growing many folds in the urban, rural and semi-urban areas. There are several applications of jaggery and almost all Indian households use it on day-to-day basis. Market for jaggery is round the year whereas its production is only during the sugarcane season and thus factory works for around 6 to 7 months every year. It has shelf-life of more than couple of months. Its production is undertaken at several places but Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Tamil Nadu are the leading manufacturers.
The major problem lies in the process of making jaggery. Traditionally, jaggery manufacturing is done on a small scale by a group of farmers. The juice is extracted from fresh sugarcane. Then it is filtered and boiled in wide, shallow iron pans with continuous stirring and, simultaneously soda is added in required quantity. While boiling, brownish foams come at the top which are continuously removed to get golden yellow colour of jaggery. The consistency of the juice becomes thick and then it is made to round or any required shape by pressing it with the help of hands manually, where blocks of jaggery are formed. From 100 kgs. of sugarcane, 10 kgs. of jaggery is made.
This project “AUTOMATIC JAGGERY MAKING MACHINE “aims at automating the jaggery making process. Rather than to incorporate the traditional way of making it, jaggery making is done automatically my pouring the boiled sugar syrup into a mould in the required shape. Hence the labour cost and time for making jaggery is greatly reduced.
Hygiene is another major concern and by this hygienic jaggery is made in perfect required shape.
The juice is extracted from fresh sugarcane. Then it is filtered and boiled in wide, shallow iron pans with continuous stirring and, simultaneously soda is added in required quantity. This continuous stirring is done with the help of a small fan whose continuous rotation stirs the syrup. The consistency of the juice becomes thick and then it is poured into the small to medium sized moulds automatically where blocks of jaggery are formed after cooling. From 100 kgs. of sugarcane, 10 kgs. of jaggery is made. The process flow chart is as under:
The sugar syrup is poured into the pan and heating takes place. In order to make it economical, the bhagase (sugarcane waste) is used for heating purpose. The heating is controlled with the help of a temperature sensor.
Once the set temperature is achieved the heating is stopped and is transferred to the mould to get cooled and jaggery to be made. This is done with the help of pneumatics.
A single acting cylinder is used of stroke length 160mm.This cylinder tilts the pan and transferring of sugar syrup to mould takes place, which ultimately leads to cooling of syrup and solidification takes place. Water cooling is provided around the mould for quicker dissipation of heat. The stand by time is set by timer and after that another cylinder brings the pan back to its position. It has a stroke length of 100mm.
1. MAN POWER:
The major problem faced in traditional method is the labour. The requirement is as follows,
The cost incurred is very high. It is very difficult for a farmer to meet with such high labour expenses. Thus automation is carried out, making the process easier.
2. PLANT AND MACHINERY:
Jaggery production is a seasonal activity and the plant generally runs from October to March-April. To produce 200 tons of jaggery every season, following machines shall be required:
USAGE OF BIO-FUELS:
Bio-Fuels are used as an alternate source of energy resource. Microbiological conversion of organic matter is to produce methane. This process is anaerobic and it is carried out by the action of various groups of anaerobic bacteria.
The three main basic principles are:
Ø This is done by anaerobes and it is slow growing one.
Ø The greater degree of metabolic specialization is observed in these anaerobic micro organisms.
Ø Most of the free energy present in the substrate found in the terminal product methane. Since less energy is available for the growth of organ isms, less microbial biomass is produced and, consequently, disposal of sludge after the digestion may be a major problem.
Presently, bhagase is used for heating the iron pan, it is time consuming one, time taken to dry the sugarcane waste is large and maintenance of that product is also a tedious process. Instead, biogas can be used for the heating purpose. The raw materials used for bio gas production are fruit waste, banana peeling, dry leaves, Bermuda grass, wheat straw, paddy straw and night soil. These materials are easily available in farms and could be used for the production of methane.
This project can be further be improvised by incorporating few efficient techniques like
Ø An efficient flow control mechanism for the sugarcane juice to be poured inside the pan.
Ø Detaching of mould into two half’s so that the jaggery falls down automatically in a conveyer and moves on.
Ø A temperature sensor to monitor the temperature of the sugarcane syrup.
This project is an innovative idea for jaggery making. With few modifications in the existing method, it is possible to automate the process of jaggery making and increase the production rate in an effective way. This project is to be implemented in real time at a Sugarcane factory in Karungalpalayam (Erode Dist.).